Human trafficking and in particular Child trafficking extracts from academic works

Human trafficking and in particular Child trafficking extracts from academic works.




Trafficking linked to unemployment, vulnerability (financial, societal), drug trafficking, migration.







Human Trafficking has been happening forever, but only in the year 2000 was it recognised as a crime by the US Government & the United Nations.




-Illegal migrants are at incredible risk of being trafficked for their organs.

-40 million people are victims of modern slavery today, 25 % are children.

‘United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) figures indicate that of almost 80% of identified victims had been trafficked for sexual exploitation’.

Up to 300,000 Americans under 18 at risk of sexual exploitation every year.

Average life span of a victim is reported to be 7 years (from homicides, mistreatments, drug abuses, sexual diseases, suicides).

– How come that subjects such as child sexual trafficking do not come up on the news? 




Child trafficking statistics:

Global trafficking statistics

Worldwide, 40.3 million men, women and children were victims of modern slavery on any day in 2016.

Walk Free Foundation, Global Slavery Index, 2018


1 in 4 victims of modern slavery in 2016 were children - a total of 10.1 million child victims.

International Labour Organisation, Walk Free Foundation and International Organisation for Migration, Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: Forced Labour and Forced Marriage, 2017





Human Trafficking has been happening forever, but only in the year 2000 was it recognised as a crime by the US Government & the United Nations.


Talk to children about staying safe



- Gangs

- You can ask your child's school to book a free Speak out Stay safe assembly for primary school children.

It’s estimated that internationally there are between 20 million and 40 million people in modern slavery today. Assessing the full scope of human trafficking is difficult because so cases so often go undetected, something the United Nations refers to as “the hidden figure of crime.”[2]


C.ET: definition disagreement, hidden figures, very difficult to gauge.






Estimates suggest that, internationally, only about .04% survivors of human trafficking cases are identified, meaning that the vast majority of cases of human trafficking go undetected. [3]


Human trafficking earns global profits of roughly $150 billion a year for traffickers, $99 billion of which comes from commercial sexual exploitation.[4]




List of Countries by GDP (Nominal)

 United States remains the largest economy of the world with GDP (Nominal) over $20 trillion in 2019. It represents a quarter share of the global economy (24.8%). China follows, with $14 trillion, or 16.3% of the world economy. Tuvalu has the world's smallest national economy with a GDP (nominal) of approximately $42 million. In World Factbook estimates, Niue, small island nation in the South Pacific Ocean, is the smallest economy with GDP of $10 mn in year 2003.



More than 2/3.

Globally, an estimated 71% of enslaved people are women and girls, while men and boys account for 29%.[5]


Estimates suggest that about 50,000 people are trafficked into the US each year, most often from Mexico and the Philippines. [6]



In 2018, over half (51.6%) of the criminal human trafficking cases active in the US were sex trafficking cases involving only children.[7]


C.ET: maybe due to be the ones specially dealt with, detected?? In any case, since inequality and poverty increase, one can be certain that trafficking and modern slavery will increasingly be left undealt with.



Advocates report a growing trend of traffickers using online social media platforms to recruit and advertise targets of human trafficking.[9]


The average age a teen enters the sex trade in the US is 12 to 14 years old. Many victims are runaway girls who were sexually abused as children.[10]


1.      “Modern Slavery Fact Sheet.” Anti-Slavery Internationa. Accessed July 31, 2019. "2019 Trafficking in Persons Report.” United States Department of State. Accessed July 31, 2019. ↩︎

2.      “Forced Labor, Modern Slavery, and Human Trafficking.” International Labor Organization. Accessed July 31, 2019. “Monitoring Target 16.2 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.” United Nations Office on Drug and Crime. Accessed July 31, 2018. ↩︎

3.      “What is Human Trafficking.” Californians Against Sexual Exploitation. Accessed July 31, 2019. ↩︎

4.      “Human Trafficking by the Numbers.” Human Rights First. Accessed July 31, 2019. ↩︎

5.      “Trafficking and Slavery Fact Sheet.” Free the Slaves. Accessed July 31, 2019. ↩︎

6.      “Human Trafficking Within and Into The United States: A Review of the Literature.” Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. Accessed July 31, 2019, ↩︎

7.      "2018 Federal Human Trafficking Report.” The Human Trafficking Institute. Accessed July 31, 2019. ↩︎

8.      "2019 Trafficking in Persons Report.” United States Department of State. Accessed July 31, 2019. ↩︎

9.      “Human Trafficking Within and Into The United States: A Review of the Literature.” Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. Accessed July 31, 2019, ↩︎

10.  “Hotline Statistics.” The National Human Trafficking Hotline. Accessed July 31, 2019. ↩︎




C.ET: often data come in aggregated data in many countries around the world-what it means is that even if they have the victims in front of them, or have information about the victims, they won't record it, they won't specify what age, they won't specify what abuses. Even after interviewing people, data should have been recorded but 'has been lost'. A recurrent situation in social sciences research.

For example, when they interview a victim, they won't bother record their ages, their conditions.... or they will record it but when the data is agglomerated within bigger or other surveys, the ones you get at the end, these data have been lost!!

Human Trafficking is an underground crime, so it’s difficult to measure, and more research is desperately needed. But we know the problem is real. We know the problem is big. And behind every estimate is a real person who cannot be dismissed.


In 2017, the International Labour Organisation expanded their reporting on trafficking & exploitation (what they call modern-slavery) to include forced marriage. Under that definition, 40.3 million are estimated to be victims at any given moment.


Under US federal law, all children involved in commercial sex are victims of human trafficking. Sadly, only about half of US states have laws that protect sexually exploited children from being prosecuted for prostitution.



C.ET: LGBT people are also particularly targeted.

Children in poverty, with parents with social problems or disabilities are specifically targeted. Shows how poverty is about creating vulnerability and also is linked with sexual exploitation and sexual tortures. That sexual assaults and exploitation of any kinds may be more to do with the aim of destroying an individual and an individuals’ prospects in life rather than being linked with what would have to do with the ‘sexuality’ of the perpetrators. Exploitation as a ramification of sadistic intent.

Many gender studies have proven this.




Love146 has connected with situations of trafficking in which exploiters have been family members, peers, romantic partners, educators, employers, community leaders, and clergy – of all ages, ethnicities & genders.

In reality, few trafficked children are swept off the street and thrown into white vans. Instead, they’re pulled into a life by traffickers that they may not have words for. Sometimes they continue going to school, living at home, and participating in extracurricular activities – even while they are being trafficked.

Effects of child trafficking

Trafficking can have both short and long term effects and the impact can last a lifetime.

Children and young people who've been trafficked might:

  • not understand what's happened to them is abuse - especially if they've been groomed
  • believe they're in a relationship with their abuser and unaware they're being exploited
  • think they played a part in their abuse or have broken the law
  • feel very guilty or ashamed about the abuse they've suffered.


Children are often too scared to speak out. They might be frightened of:

  • what'll happen to themselves, their friends and their family
  • all adults and authorities
  • being prosecuted for a crime
  • being returned to their home country where their situation may be even worse
  • Juju or witchcraft rituals performed during their experiences
  • judgement from their community and families.


C.ET: stigmatization.


They may also feel very guilty or ashamed about the abuse they've suffered.





The impact;

·        Human trafficking has surpassed the illegal sale of armsthumb No More

·        Trafficking will surpass the illegal sale of drugs in the next few years

·        Drugs are used once and they are gone. Victims of child trafficking can be used and abused over and over

·        A $32 billion-a-year industry, human trafficking is on the rise and is in all 50 states (U.S. Government)

·        Up to 300,000 Americans under 18 are lured into the commercial sex trade every year





Trafficking statistics IN THE UK.


10,627 potential victims of human trafficking were identified in 2019 - a 52% increase from 2018.


Home Office, National Referral Mechanism Statistics: UK, End of Year Summary, 2019


Nearly half (43%) of all potential victims of trafficking  - 4,550 victims - were children aged 18 and under.


Home Office, National Referral Mechanism Statistics: UK, End of Year Summary, 2019



 Answering questions about how trafficking might be related to profit and inequity: cannot be more related.


- bring mass amount of money as trafficking but also from pornography.

- huge lobbies directly pressurizing the governments.

- exploitation, pure and evil, just drawing blood from abusing, enslaving people.


- prey on the vulnerable- on the people that society failed to protect or already exploited: financially, socially, economically…

- also tool to bring about inequalities: to destroy individual lives and therefore annihilate their opportunities to live a decent life.



C: This is valid for labor, not for sexual exploitation, as sexuality should not be seen as a product.

Slavery, you do not pay anybody, people are left in appalling conditions, also natural competition between human beings is through annihilation like this killed, or neutralised as well- end of competition through enslavement. That is to say if people are tortured, they pay the bills of others while at work, and create resources while being unpaid. The one paid is the ones producing terror (exploiting people) and the ones buying the products that are cheaper.




Child human trafficking victims: Challenges for the child welfare system

Rowena Fong *, Jodi Berger Cardoso



- most of the research and resources for trafficking victims have been directed towards

adults rather than children (Fong, 2010).


- Researchers agree that there is a growing number of sexually exploited and trafficked children in the United States (Boxill & Richardson, 2007; Estes & Weiner, 2002; Spangenberg, 2001).


- Yet few programs emphasize the unique experiences and special needs of this population (Fong, 2010).


- Many of the domestic victims of sexual exploitation are vulnerable youth on the street or from the foster care system(Fong, 2010).


- Approximately 25% (224) of prostitution cases occurred while the child was living at home, 59% (532) of the children participated in local sex rings run by pimps and 16% (145) engaged in national sex prostitution rings (Estes & Weiner, 2002). Estes and Weiner (2002).


- Children who live close to international borders (Fong, 2010).



Many juvenile victims of sexual exploitation are funneled through the juvenile justice system. They are often arrested on charges of prostitution or illegal work (Fong, 2010).  

  Previous research consistently

demonstrates the negative impact of child sexual abuse on

child and adult mental health outcomes. In a recent study of such

abuse victims, Spatato, Mullen, Burgess, Wells, & Moss (2004)

found increased incidences of acute anxiety and stress disorders,

affective disorders, conduct disorders and personality disorders.

Other mental health problems may include acute post-traumatic

stress symptoms, low self-esteem, suicidality, poor academic

achievement, substance abuse, disassociation and poor interpersonal

relationship quality (Cohen & Mannarino, 2008; Corcoran &

Pillai, 2008).


- Domestic and international victims of human trafficking are

typically not eligible for services until they have been officially

classified as victims of trafficking. This has often been a hardship

for governmental and non-governmental agencies, who do receive

funding for services until this classification status is achieved. Once

sexually exploited youth have been identified, there are few secure

shelters and treatment programs that can aid in rehabilitation and

reintegration. Moreover, many shelters and treatment programs

do not provide services specific to sexually exploited youth (Fong, 2010).

- Human trafficking victims often

have extra needs for anonymity in group therapy and fear that

family members may be harmed because traffickers use death

threats to enforce compliance (Fong, 2010).

- Many models aim to accomplish at least one of four goals:

symptom reduction, destigmatization, increasing self-esteem and

self-concept and prevention of future abuse (Lev-Wiesel, 2008).


A plethora of barriers in child welfare and other public systems

impede the identification of children who have been sexually

abused. To tackle victim identification, public child welfare

workers and social service providers need to work closely with

juvenile detention facilities, court system, emergency shelters, and

school social workers (Boxill & Richardson, 2005). Until recently,

these entities were completely unaware that U.S. children were

being exploited for commercial sex. While awareness of the issue is

still lacking, successful programs in New York and Atlanta have

helped draw national attention (Fong, 2010).

C.ET: said to be unaware, but in fact unprepared and uncooperative, or not disclosing or tackling.


Few treatment and social service programs are equipped to

address the complex needs of children who may have experienced

torture, rape, drug abuse, trafficking and physical abuse (Fong, 2010).

316 R. Fong, J. Berger Cardoso / Evaluation and Program Planning 33 (2010) 311–316



Joe, I found the figure of 1.2 million you talked about. They may have kept the number because it is a good poster, or it is a poster that is old. Under this poster with the figure of 1.2 million they talk about new figures and nowhere 1.2 million is corresponding to anything- I wonder whether 1.2 million could be about how many more children have been abused each year. therefore, it is a figure that is added to the already existent one.

The most agreed on estimates are 10 million children worldwide.


Keep in view things are changing, and in fact they are worsening. -or are they better spotted, better identified, denounced??…whatever the reasons. figures of identified cases are growing.





Human Trafficking has been happening forever, but only in the year 2000 was it recognised as a crime by the US Government & the United Nations. 



C.ET: Very documented scandal with Matzneff: This writer is open about having raped minors, he writes about it, not under the banner of being amongst the fictional genre in literature, but as being memoirs, i.e. autobiography. Thank you France.

A heavy toll for the victims of human trafficking

By Adriana Hauser and Mariano Castillo, CNN


Their descent into prostitution followed different paths but ended up in the same nightmare: abuse, drugs and fear.

For years, the girls who sell their bodies on certain Miami streetcorners and in hotels were treated as criminals. But new state laws have instructed police and judges to look at the wider context and consider them victims of sex exploitation.

South Florida is the third-busiest area for sex trafficking in the United States, the Department of Justice says, and oftentimes it is children who are drawn into the web without even realizing it.

Once girls enter the sex industry, their average life expectancy is seven years, with homicide and AIDS being the top killers, Rodriguez said.

A friend invited her to a hotel when she was 18.

"She knew what was going to happen, but I didn't," Samantha said. "I didn't realize it until later."

April has two children, ages 2 and 4, and works as a prostitute to pay for their needs and for her education, she said.

Initially, it was a boyfriend who get her involved in prostitution.

She was working as a stripper, she said, when she met the guy, who promised her clients and money. 

"I want to stop," she said.


"If I can find a job."

Children who are trafficked for labor purposes might be removed from their families and forced to perform domestic household services, or work in factories or agriculture.

Though millions of children are trafficked, there is a much larger number of children involved in child labor that is not considered trafficking.

There are an estimated 168 million child laborers around the world, with around half of them participating in what is known as “hazardous work” – work that endangers the child’s physical, emotional, or social well-being.


55% of victims are women and girls

Child labor makes it difficult for children to succeed in school (if they attend at all). Lack of education ultimately limits a child’s lifetime earning potential and keeps them in poverty, thus perpetuating the cycle for their own children.



98% of victims trafficked for sexual exploitation are women and girls.


Trafficker Tricks

India is heavily involved in sex trafficking as a source, destination, and transit country, despite legislation and increased efforts to combat trafficking. Often, traffickers will come to a village claiming to be recruiting employees for a large business or corporation.


They promise job training, excellent salaries, and the ability to move into higher positions over time. The young women they lure – generally with their parents’ consent or coercion – leave the village with these traffickers and find that once they are in a big city they are sold to a brothel, or otherwise forced to engage in commercial sex work.


If they resist, they risk being beaten, raped, or killed. Alone and in an unfamiliar place, there is nothing they can do.


The marriage dowry trick

Or a young man will visit a village saying he is looking for a wife and that he is willing to accept a girl without a marriage dowry. The thought of getting a daughter married without having to pay the typically exorbitant dowry is too tempting for impoverished families.

The girl is given to the man thinking she will be married and taken care of, but instead she is whisked away and forced into the sex trade.


13 sex trafficking statistics that explain the enormity of the global sex trade

Cara Kelly USA TODAY

Sex trafficking is a massive, worldwide problem that can take many forms. 

One of the most prolific: America’s multibillion-dollar illicit massage industry. 

The prominence of illegal parlors and their ties to sex trafficking 

the problem is growing, to as many as 9,000 illicit spas in the U.S. alone.

Here are 13 statistics that help explain the scope of the problem. 


There are more than 4 million victims of sex trafficking globally



99% are women and girls



in 10 victims were exploited in Asia and the Pacific region


According to the International Labour Organization report, more than 70% of sex trafficking victims were located in Asia and the Pacific, compared with 14% in Europe and Central Asia and 4% in the Americas. 


In illicit massage parlors in the U.S., the vast majority of reported trafficking victims are from China, with a notable number from the Fujian province in southeastern China. South Korea forms the second highest group.  


Profits from forced sexual labor are estimated at $99 billion worldwide


Profits are highest per sex trafficking victim in developed economies


Events like the Super Bowl increasingly are monitored for sex trafficking

Efforts to combat trafficking around major events have increased in recent years, most notably around the Super Bowl. 

"It's not necessarily about football or the NFL," Courtney Dow, an outreach coordinator for the Atlanta-based nonprofit Dream Center, told USA TODAY before Super Bowl LIII in January. "When groups of men get together, usually trafficking and exploitation increases.”


Prosecutions of sex trafficking are down in the U.S.

The State Department’s 2019 Trafficking in Persons Report found the Department of Justice opened significantly fewer human trafficking investigations in 2018 compared to 2017, dropping from 783 to 657. It also reported significantly fewer prosecutions: 230, down from 282. 

That holds true for cases specifically focused on sex trafficking. Of the prosecutions, 213 were for sex trafficking, down from 266 in 2017.


Victims are still arrested for crimes they were forced to commit by traffickers

The State Department’s report found that at the state and local level, victims are still being arrested for crimes they’re compelled to commit such as commercial sex work, including child victims. 

This comes despite a push for “safe harbor” laws, passed in at least 34 states, which are meant to stop child sex trafficking victims from being prosecuted for prostitution and other charges related to commercial sex.





Professor argues it should be legal for grown men to have sex with children. Let that sink in.

January 14, 2020 


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Hubbard also says that the problem of young boys without fathers might be resolved by having men have sex with those boys.


In his writing, this bozo argues that Ancient Greece showed us that “where age discrepant relationships are commonplace and positively reinforced, they cause little or no long-term harm to the younger partner and often confer great benefit,” he writes.

This was contained in a 22-page article Hubbard wrote for a journal called Thymos, entitled “Sexual Consent and the Adolescent Male, or What Can We Learn From the Greeks.”



Hubbard justifies his sickening position by saying that America “should consider moving in the direction of what most European states do, which is to maintain an age of consent of 14 or 15 with special protections against prostitution of those under 18 or involvement with an adult who is in a position of trust (family  members, teachers, therapists, clergy), he said.

Wow…boundaries. Shocking actually.

There are activists on the UT campus who have been trying to get Hubbard ousted from the university. A student group known as “Fire the Abusers” says that Hubbard is “guilty” of publishing works arguing that “statutory rape and age of consent laws are burdens.”

Enter the sick group North American Man/Boy Love Association, or NAMBLA, a pro-pedophilia and pro-pederasty organization. Yes, such an organization exists. And to think the NRA receives so much hate.

Enter the sick group North American Man/Boy Love Association, or NAMBLA, a pro-pedophilia and pro-pederasty organization. Yes, such an organization exists. And to think the NRA receives so much hate.

Richard Gardner, a clinical professor of child psychiatry was once quoted as saying, “Society’s excessively moralistic and punitive reactions toward pedophiles…go far beyond what I consider to be the gravity of the crime.” He says that pedophilia serves “procreative purposes.”




French Pedophile Accused Of Molesting 300 Kids Could Be Executed By Firing Squad


A French man who was traveling in Indonesia on a tourist visa was arrested by police in the capital city of Jakarta, after he was found sexually assaulting two young girls in a hotel room. The suspect, 65-year-old Francois Abello Camille, was accused of molesting and beating over 300 children, after video evidence was found in possession during the arrest.

In the raid of the hotel room, police found Camille’s laptop computer, which contained hundreds of videos showing him sexually assaulting young children.



Authorities find 123 missing children in just ONE day during a Michigan sex trafficking operation


All of those children were physically located and interviewed about potentially being sexually victimized or used in a sex trafficking ring during the time they were missing.

QAnon Followers Are Hijacking the #SaveTheChildren Movement

Fans of the pro-Trump conspiracy theory are clogging anti-trafficking hotlines, infiltrating Facebook groups and raising false fears about child exploitation.

 QAnon, the sprawling pro-Trump conspiracy theory. 

These people were also disturbed about human trafficking, but with a dark twist: Many of them believed that President Trump was on the verge of exposing “Pizzagate” or “Pedogate,” their terms for a global conspiracy involving a ring of Satan-worshiping, child-molesting criminals led by prominent Democrats.

My acquaintance is not a QAnon believer. And she certainly doesn’t think, as some QAnon adherents do, that Hillary Clinton and her cronies are kidnapping and eating children (yes, eating them) in order to harvest a life-extending chemical from their blood.

The idea, in a nutshell, is to create a groundswell of concern by flooding social media with posts about human trafficking, joining parenting Facebook groups and glomming on to hashtag campaigns like #SaveTheChildren, which began as a legitimate fund-raising campaign for the Save the Children charity. 

The QAnon strategy of pushing some unobjectionable, often factual content about human trafficking in addition to wild conspiracy theories has blurred the lines between legitimate anti-trafficking activism and partisan conspiracy mongering.

the Polaris Project, a nonprofit organization that runs the National Human Trafficking Hotline, issued a news release saying its hotline had been overwhelmed with false reports. 

It later published a blog post warning that “unsubstantiated claims and accusations about child sex trafficking can spin out of control and mislead well-meaning people into doing more harm than good.”








C.ET: this so late onset to start legislation that tried to apply their principles maybe due to the mafia, maybe due to the colonialist attitude of the people in power (understand in that, everyone that may hold and abuse power at every scale and level of the society), but it might also come from what people often misappropriately called family values, i.e. whatever happens within close doors will stay within these doors. Children, individuals, belonged to the church (or to any other religious apparatus- in islam, hinduism, other religions and sects), to the family……child could be even when states were concerned be disposed of the way patriarchy (or matriarchy) found it suitable.





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