Thursday, May 3, 2018

Transgender's enforcement building: the children who are operated because they identify to a fake and permissive notion of what is adequate for the opposite sex, are the victims of pro-Nazi, pro-eugenics promoters.

Transgender's enforcement:
Transgender's enforcement building: the children who are operated because they identify to a fake and permissive notion of what is adequate for the opposite sex, are the victims of pro-Nazi, pro-eugenics promoters.

The children who are operated because they identify to a fake and permissive notion of what is adequate for the opposite sex, are the victims of pro-Nazi, pro-eugenics promoters

The children who are operated because they identify to a fake and permissive notion of what is adequate for the opposite sex, are the victims of pro-Nazi, pro-eugenics promoters, satisfying a populace thirsty for castration, and making salaries of medical torture a standard. Be their money given, a pittance, a token or towards propelling billions of dollars and other nuke currencies industry.

It is the fascists who want to operate on children, and change their bodies, the moment they say the game keepers may identify them to the other sex, in relation to the fake dichotomy that have been established by nazi attitude between males and females in matter of activities, roles, functions, and the people they are entitled to marry with.
It is a way to mutilate genders, and to maim gays.
You do not fit their class A fascistic laws that they want to be back, the reward, the scalpel wielded by medical psychopaths making thousands theorizing about how appropriate it will be to be queer, trans, sick heteros. 

The new fashion of operating homos or people who would like to identify with what has been dictated (you are the willing cats in videos, pranking, all eager to see if the mirror their 3 piece suit will make up for what they are) as the other sex activities or the prerogatives they have to be as partners.

Transgenders irrevocable enforcement building.

Just like that started with torture and inequality. Since here it is the homos or gender difference or similarities that are targeted. Once everybody will be under cut and left dying, homos like transgender will be yet again expulsed from society. Of course, it cannot be said to be an hetero victory, as it is at every stage that this dance for death is the sign that society as wholly heartedly sing it- we ain’t worth it. Even a crap il I e litty bit. Chorus refrains.

At the end I am sorry to have to leave this post this way, because I should get yourself some articles that would demonstrate it. But just think. Those measures have been imposed by people that want death for gays.

PS: not to deny transgenders of course, I can perfectly understand people want or need a sex change, but not this way. I admit too that it well can be argue that the ops will be more successful when performed on young patients, but it is just that they are not patients, they are victims of these sickos psychos, that a decade earlier would have electrified us in so many lectures rooms, bedrooms, textbooks and treaties.
These children will be the laboratory tests of what those pretended scientists and doctors, in effect those dehumanized technicians, of technics that are still well under rudimentary. It is not removing the original sex off an individual and put another, the performance of those operations, or sex reassignment are just horrid. That is in addition of having been castrated, the sex that is put instead does not work, is not performing in any sense of the word.

Yet, again to want to become a transgender is completely acceptable. It is choosing to have another sex that the one one’s had. To impose on children to be cut of theirs, is nothing short of aggravated genital mutilation.
To have lost one’s sex on people’s consensus on how to be gendered vis a vis how one’s has felt and how it is decrypted by society to suit codes that maim and imprison everybody.

On top of being cut, to run risks of having lost one’s sex, its sexual pleasure as well as those ones of reproduction. We do know that reproductive rights are the worst nightmares of human rights theories are reproduction entails overpopulation and also that people will have descendants when some won’t and this can play on power abuse and abuse of the power of education, etc.…an endless conundrum.
When it will not be a physical sterilization of the gays, it will be a mental one.

All of these nazis, again pouring and stealing the money, out of having so successfully bastardised and secluded. Elucidated?
Scientific psychology has been a very well-known absolute monster and abuser in many countries, from capitalist to communists, just jailing people and putting them in boxes, affirming their sado-masochisms and ignorance, and lack of total reality. And here their victory, a total get-away. Way too easy… never again, because one cannot recreate the past only. Crates.

I again want to repeat, this post is in absolutely not directed at transgenderism asked legitimately by free and consensual adults.
And while it is absolutely sure that people feel they want to change sex, there is no ages to understand how society that every morning, clad themselves, in order to transvestite themselves. Transvestite are everybody. Everybody in the morning look at their mirror asking themselves if they are smashing in the clothes that indicate the role they d like to be invested with (and all versions of this- that is when one can choose their clothes-but can he? The society in which we live destroyed everything, what camouflage will ever prevent this.

Wednesday, May 2, 2018

China 'Social Credit Score system', censorship, Tibet invasion and others, organ harvesting.



China expansionism, industrial espionage, Tibet invasion and others, organ harvesting.







Tibet Situation : Critical - Full Documentary. Tibet Documentary by Jason Lansdell




Tibet The Story Of A Tragedy




Why There is No Free Tibet | China Uncensored


C: Dalai lama is to be chosen by the communist party next time!



THE YOGIS OF TIBET - Rare Documentary Film


C: it is only my interpretation, but what I feel the dalai lama said, is that he has been forced to lead a political life when he could not live the spiritual one that a dalai lama is meant to live, in Tibet.

The source of water for a massive part of asia. The one that should have remained unspoilt by any means.

His spirituality would want its leader to be impassable, but being in his situation over Tibet and balloted the way this sacred land is- and the people retaining a traditional live, only able to preserve the god mountain from the rotten attitudes that people have attached to this illusion of modernity, must be completely overtly excruciating.






Has China really stopped obtaining organs from executed prisoners?




Forced organ harvesting in China has taken place ‘on significant scale,’ tribunal finds




Surgeon Forced to Kill for organ harvesting by China Regime | NTD




'Overwhelming' evidence of Chinese government is running organ harvesting




Red Reign | Execution of the Falun Gong (China Documentary) | Reel Truth Crime




Organ harvesting links pressure Australian university






WARNING: Gutter Oil In China Used In Street Food



China's Horrendous Electronic Trash Dump



C: Every thing there is on this page, linked with pollution I saw. I was researching documentaries about the amount of garbage in poor quarters in all the cities I visited, the amount of rubbles that is never picked up by the authorities, that is the communist party. They leave people living on top of rubbishes that are never collected. In towns as in countryside, near lakes, hills. Hills that they bombed to make the land even and arable. The red terra Cota of china open her wound that bleed and bleed and bleed on, till they will manage to get all the poor people from the countryside into dirty cemetery towns and that the party of course take the part of the country, like in Europe, where there is still a tree and a water that is not littered with refuse.

(and corpses? = sip seep the poison that this generate will be the worst ever scourge on humanities ever I would suggest. Nature knows now.


C: just to clarify my position between china and Hong-Kong, is that someone needs to be also anti-capitalist, but anyway it is not china any longer able to lodge even the faintest claim towards that heroic aspirations.


Humans that are protected won’t be able to pray for the humans such as them anylonger but for the planet. As for the humans that see that and endure that everyday, this system would ensure that they produce the poison- the only trick they found is for us to ingest it. Wherever one is. Or so it seems, but the ones that is at the worst receiving end have no chance to survive it.




How the Chinese Communist Party infiltrated Australia's universities | Four Corners



China Pushes “Happy Tibet” Propaganda in US Libraries



Tibet: Under threat from extreme climate change impacts



Dining on Dogs in China: Dog Days of Yulin (Part 1/2)






The Observers: China garbage cleanup




South China dam swimming in massive trash




Collecting for rent in pricey Hong Kong, one cardboard box at a time




Live Animal Keychain in China(ANIMAL CRUELTY)




China: live turtles in bags sold as key rings






C: and this one is for the French. French passports are all but prohibited in china, as French have had the merits of pushing for human rights observance.




China cooking live animals in contest



Carrie Lam defends national security law in speech to United Nations




Miserable turtles in China




C: it is just a question here, but I wonder whether the buddhist idea of compassion is entirely understood, as I kept noticing plants that were dying of thirst in temples. I reiterate, it is just a question. Since suffering is a well-documented notion in Buddhism too.




Exposing China's Digital Dystopian Dictatorship | Foreign Correspondent


C: Don't you know ho much in europe you are to be paying in case of defamation to celebreties and firms in particular. it is a real massive problem in europe. millions for some fines!!!


you know of a journalists that solved many cases or corruption cases??? at least no many in the west, and gods knows how crooky they are.




C: it sounded here as if the segregation on Yegur is not religious but ethnic.

The problem is what china is doing for its whole people will be completely segregatory on party values guidelines. Feed the apparatchik. Like trump positioning the poorer castes in land they will make sure are mercury, bleach and better things- while taking presidency of territories they did not manage yet to suck dry, as it was just jungle or the last primeval forests the week before we die.




Face-off Between Indian, Chinese Troops In North Sikkim Triggers Fist-Fight, Several Injured



Sikkim Impasse Explained: What Is The India-China-Bhutan Border Standoff?




China accuses US of hypocrisy over Huawei, highlighting claims it spied on German leader Merkel





Un commissaire européen alerte l'UE sur Huawei qui se dit "déçu"


L'Union européenne a des raisons de s'inquiéter face à Huawei Technologies et d'autres entreprises technologiques chinoises en raison des menaces qu'elles représentent pour le secteur et la sécurité du bloc communautaire, a déclaré vendredi Andrus Ansip, vice-président de la Commission européenne chargé du marché unique numérique.




The main supplier of information and communication technology systems to the AU headquarters was China’s best-known telecoms equipment company - Huawei.

But in January 2018, French newspaper Le Monde Afrique dropped a bombshell.

It reported that the AU’s computer system had been compromised.

The newspaper, citing multiple sources, said that for five years, between the hours of midnight and 0200, data from the AU’s servers was transferred more than 8,000km away - to servers in Shanghai.

This had allegedly continued for 1,825 days in a row.

Le Monde Afrique reported that it had come to light in 2017, when a conscientious scientist working for the AU recorded an unusually high amount of computer activity on its servers during hours when the offices would have been deserted.

It was also reported that microphones and listening devices had been discovered in the walls and desks of the building, following a sweep for bugs.



The U.K.’s decision in late January to allow “high-risk vendors” to equip parts of its 5G telecommunications networks permits the continuing involvement of Huawei, a company described by U.S. legislators and officials as an arm of the Chinese state. The decision has been widely portrayed as a sacrifice of the U.K.’s security and that of partner nations to short-sighted material greed

5G and Huawei: The UK and EU Decide

The EU and U.K. are willing to accept some managed risk in return for expected gains brought by interdependence with China.









China Is Using Buddhism To Dominate Global Trade While Oppressing Tibetan Buddhists (HBO)





Eating Snakes Hot Pot in China Guangzhou 廣州




Alive Food in Chinatown Complex Wet Market - Frogs, Crabs, Fish. Singapore Street Food



Served Alive: Inside the American Live-Animal Eating Trend



Alive Food in Chinatown Complex Wet Market - Frogs, Crabs, Fish. Singapore Street Food


C: like in France or almost.




WUHAN MARKET Before COVID-19 (Let's take a look)





C: do not think it is only in few markets in china, in china it is in every town.

I think that human beings may be soon be cursed by the food, like the people without money in china, because they cannot afford vegetable and fruit. And without vegetable, our bodies will have to take poison, rotting on corpses. On eating dead flesh. And so become. Not out of ‘necessity’ but guilty of it.

It eat.

H-it. H-eat.




The torture of the wild life, this is how wildlife is connected to viruses. But to whom heartless git to put it lightly, too comradly, would need a justification? Because people will seize the opportunities. To kill wildlife the moment, kill them more, when a connection, spurious or not have been shown.

Even if we were in heaven, if wildlife spread the virus, then we would need to take precaution, not kill anyone, anything, for the brain of the crap to understand.


Just to kill and kill more, so in fact the virus, is you.



China: Power and Prosperity -- Watch the full documentary

Interference: China’s covert political influence campaign in Australia | Four Corners




Why China is building islands in the South China Sea



Modi warns China against its expansionist policy



Gravitas: Decoding China's powerplay in Myanmar



'They see my blue eyes then jump back' – China sees a new wave of xenophobia

Over the past few weeks, as Chinese health officials reported new “imported” coronavirus cases almost every day, foreigners living in the country have noticed a change. They have been turned away from restaurants, shops, gyms and hotels, subjected to further screening, yelled at by locals and avoided in public spaces.

By last Thursday, officials had reported a total of 595 imported cases since the outbreak began, the main source being the UK. In the last seven days, China has reported only six locally transmitted cases but dozens arriving from abroad.



The UN and the WHO is completely ‘under the influence’ of Communist China


C: watch this if you have a particular interest in Taiwan who first reported the WHO about covid new disease, the WHO did not listen, keep on denying them the right to report.



WION Dispatch: Diplomatic standoff intensifies between India & Nepal over link road to Lipulekh pass



20 Indian Soldiers Killed in Deadly Border Clash With China

The troops were apparently killed by Chinese soldiers in close-quarter combat high up in the Himalayas, just as the two countries were trying to de-escalate tensions.



Exotic animal trade exposed





And finally:

China calls for US to support COVID-19 probe



China, however, has not spared even one of the world's smallest countries, Bhutan, which has barely 8,000 men in its security forces. In the disputed Himalayan plateau of Doklam, claimed by both Bhutan and China Clearly, New Delhi didn't anticipate that an end to the faceoff would result in rapid Chinese encroachments that now virtually preclude India intervening again in Doklam at Bhutan's behest.

In effect, Beijing has shown Bhutan that India cannot guarantee its territorial integrity.



India-China on the verge of military conflict



Real Reason Why China Wants To Expand


C: Resources, but here is not mentioned water. Of course, every nation is culled, crawling in corners because not having them is damning in this system we live in, but come and take it is different. Do not know if everything is fact in this video, but most of what I know checked.

As a note what happens in the poles and what will if we survive humanity’ s greet and greed and gross crime reconducted, is what will happen in space, not china or the US only?, but who is I think the whole question behind sheer inactions, pompous reaction, slowliness of mind and police-seize.





View from Bhutan: China Has Always Had Its Eye on Doklam

After the Chinese refused to listen to the Bhutanese Army, Indian troops entered the area to halt construction. This provoked a Chinese retaliation, which destroyed some small Indian outposts in the territory



Unfortunately, I don't think it is fake news.

it is the mainstream that do not follow.

They are often only acting like diplomatic channel.




China tells Australia not to interfere in espionage case



C: most likely, just like the Chinese citizens are imprisoned to show disagreement with the comm party, this writer is not a spy, but someone who simply reported on the daily business and conditions in china.

Just as a comment, there are here a lot of Australian sources, as they are a lot of Australian common project, in education scheme for example, together with china. So china is very intertwined culturally with Australia compared to other ‘western’ countries.



Economic & Cyber Espionage Issues May Dominate US-China Talks


C: what is the truth, we may never know. Our contemporary for those, for sure, will never know. Mayo mayor, after a new wikileaks, a little bit more sun over the walls of destruction.




China Has Plan To Undermine The U.S. Military



C: good very succinct summary of what is happening all over Africa.



On all issues treated by trumpee, including intellectual property fall and theft (not heft, but fall and hell) it is a shame that these issues are passed the lips, very sehrious issues, the lips of the American president, that will stand, like it or not, as the most decrepiting, discredited global figures of contemporary history. Just take all its nations to the limbo from a state that were not so much so.



Intellectual Piracy in China



China brand piracy hits German firms | DW Business



How China, Russia steal US intellectual property



How A Chinese Student Allegedly Stole Duke University Tech To Create A Billion-Dollar Empire | TODAY



Former Qualcomm CEO on China and intellectual property theft



China: Biggest victim of cyber espionage



China espionage campaign: how China is using LinkedIn for digital spying



Former CIA Head Hayden: How China Might Recruit Spies



Stolen Secrets: Economic Espionage on the Rise



Exporting Harm: The High-Tech Trashing of Asia




C: it takes this report some nerve to cite dupont, while Dupont, in fact polluted the whole world and particularly the US it seems with its chemicals, they did not even bother to dispose of in any stretch of the imagination in the proper way, just ditching it in rivers, while it should never had come on earth first. People would like to make of these trivial and subject of laugh matter. Poorer. Beyond.



C: titanium to color food! Just as a note never forget how America and their followers made the patents of medications unaffordable to the very same countries they exploited and emptied thoroughly to the core. Never forget.


I am not talking about pay-back, because the nuclear power, if not before have had the opportunities to wipe other out. Fortunately even with biological weapons, humans know that they need diversity to adapt, if only to their questions.

But just as to clarify, I here make circulate some info, not that I take the north side, but building a malevolent power over thieving another ones research is not the evolution you want to be part of. Because? Because it is not evolution.



But in a way I can also see myself beggin’ the Chinese, in another world that would just have logically sprouted to harvest, no, haven me from religions and capitalism (though communistic is (equal to) capitalistic preposterous instead of prosper and psychopathic appetite for ‘ gain’, and communism is the inquisitor matching their Europeans peering.





Protest against Beijing turns violent in Australia




China lashes out at Western businesses as it tries to cut support for Hong Kong protests

Well-known brands including Tiffany and the NBA have felt China’s wrath

Companies that do business with China walk a fine line to stay aligned with U.S. values such as freedom of speech and democracy while avoiding offending China, where they stand to make billions of dollars.



Britain must help Hong Kong's protesters in their fight against a police state

Hong Kong’s government is increasingly turning the city into a brutal police state, but its citizens are not going to give up fighting for their basic rights and freedoms



Hong Kong students in UK call for action over pro-China threats and harassment

Laura Manneringby Laura Mannering 26th November 2019

Cambridge University student Ulysses Chow opened his email inbox and discovered a death threat to his mother.







Does China have a backdoor to your phone?



Communist China 'sends a warning shot at Australia'


C: indonesia?

 Living-proof why it might seem good that china has banned betting, and casino when you hear this journalist trying to cath with the occasion?



Investigation: Why is China on the move in the South Pacific? | 60 Minutes Australia



C: reporting on buying land, just like trumpee wanted to do with Greenland, this time on lease.


Is China taking over the South Pacific? | 60 Minutes Australia



Chinese villages poisoned by American high-tech trash


C: it is still this way in 2020, don’t think it is outdated pictures.





How Russia is sectarian and hidden is as suspect for a guess, but the Russian economy her is maimed. If I understood it well, probably human society is facing a reinforced slavery rise, like it always has been in African countries through racism and utter poverty, or more discreetly in India with casts…or like trafficking, human selling and slavery spreading, including in Europe and in the USA.




Monday, April 2, 2018

Granting rights to the living


Granting rights to the living





Part of the translation of the text :

Faire droit au vivant

By Catherine Larrère|  10 octobre 2018|  DOSSIER POUR LA SCIENCE N° 101



Granting rights to the living.


From now on, nature and the living are subjects of law, able to go to court to be protected.


In 1972, Christopher Stone, a law teacher in California, caused a stir by writing an item called ‘Should Trees Have Standing? In order to prevent Walt Disney company from building a winter sports resort in the Mineral King Valley, a region well-known for its sequoias, he proposed to bestow the legal capacity of subjects of law to natural entities, in this case trees, thus giving the trees the possibility to plead in their own right before the court.


The Sierra Club, a famous environmental NGO, sued Walt Disney over its project but the California Court of Appeal rejected the claim saying that the organisation could not have legal standing since its members have not been personally adversely affected and did not suffer damage or individual loss. US Supreme Court was about to begin deliberations when Christopher Stone intervened. His idea- it is true that the personal lives of the Sierra Club’s members will not be affected directly by the Walt Disney project, however the same thing cannot be said about the trees the lives of which are threatened. Also, if the trees’ cause was personally defended in court by an appointed representative, they could win, and the project then would be stopped.







Overall, the strategy that served me the most, even more so at the beginning of the exercise, was to read texts directly related to the primary text in question this helped me a lot to grasp the main concepts used and to see how authors would compare, contrast and link them.

As some of the vocabulary is from the legal domain, one will easily face two main difficulties. On one hand this is a specialised text, and it may be the case that at times to translate in a professional way is only possible for a specialist. One the other hand, it might be impossible, for specialists of comparative law themselves, to find exact equivalents, and therefore being left with no other options than to resort to translation technics such as cultural equivalence (Vinay, and Darbelnet, 1958/1977)  since the French and American or English (if they are taken as source and target cultures) legal systems do not have always themselves strict equivalents terms (Gémar, 1982) as they are different systems with different laws, infrastructures, organizations, historical, legal, and social references that do not match.

The primary challenge translating this text, was that the interest in law for this status change is very recent (Regad, 2018). It has been therefore several times difficult to find similar expressions coined in other texts (even expressions from the original French item to translate). One will have to then research not very used neologisms in context and jargon not yet entirely stabilised (Fournel, 2012), or concepts that remain very evolutive, changing or not very largely settled or represented. To solve lack in similarity in different cultures and also the challenge of the novelty in recent cultural stance, I often chose an explanatory approach, or explicitness change (Chesterman, 1997), sometimes using several words, instead of one, translate a word twice in order to erase ambiguity and frame the original idea further, and explaining or exemplifying further the concept.

One of the biggest translation dilemmas was on the topical sentence. The French text proclaims : ‘La parole est à la défense ‘. Numerous instances of this saying which is linked to court processes can be found. In English the translation I chose is ‘the defence may now speak' that is a literal translation (Chesterman, 1997) of the French text. I did find a few texts using this expression, however it did not seem to be used by the judges in English jargon; phrases such as ‘you may proceed’, ‘Please present your case’, ‘Present your opening statement’ (Oneida County Youth Court, 2019) being spoken instead. After searching for alternative phrases, I finally opted for the literal version. What motivated my decision is that the ability to speak has historically and presently being taken into account in the granting of legal rights. If nature needs a representative to articulate its rights, one of the most notable injustice of the psychiatric and legal world had been to consider the inability of some human beings to speak as evidence of their mental and intellectual disabilities (Colley, 1999) (Harvey, 1857) (Crowley, 2018), these scientific or medical assessments in turn instrumentalised in determining these people diminished legal status


(526 words)




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Braudo, S. (2019) ‘Définition de Faire droit, Dictionnaire du droit privé [Online]. Available at  (Accessed 10 January 2019).


Braudo, S. (2019) ‘Définition de Préjudice, Dictionnaire du droit privé [Online]. Available at  (Accessed 10 January 2019).


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Cotterill, T. (2018) ‘Gosport baby death trial: Jurors to continue deliberations for a third day’, The News, November 26 [Online]. Available (Accessed 10 January 2019).


Course Hero. (2019) Capacity of subject of law [Online]. Available (Accessed 10 January 2019).


Crowley, J. (2018) Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, Disability History Museum [Online]. Available (Accessed 10 January 2019).


Davies, P and Green, M. (2017) Environment: The Concept of Legal Personality – From Companies to Natural Entities? Latham & Watkins LLP [Online]. Available (Accessed 10 January 2019).


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Pavlik, S. (2015) ‘Should Trees Have Legal Standing in Indian Country?’ Wicazo Sa Review, 2015, Vol.30(1), p.7 [Online]. Available at (Accessed 10 January 2019).


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Appendix 1: corpus of texts:




Locus standi in environmental torts and the potential influence of human rights… (M. Wilde)

January 18, 2014


Mark Wilde


Environmental tort; standing (locus standi); environmental justice; private nuisance; convergence of human rights and tort; human rights and environmental justice; European Court of Human Rights jurisprudence; statute and standing.

Abstract (introduction)

The debate regarding the role of civil liability as a means of environmental protection has been running for many years and shows no signs of running its course, as certain States press ahead with environmental liability regimes and the European Community continually shifts position. One of the central themes that has yet to be fully resolved concerns which parties should be in a position to take action in respect of environmental harm. Existing private-law mechanisms focus on individual loss, be it in the form of personal injuries or damage to property. This immediately limits the class of persons who may claim and focuses attention on the individual loss rather than the wider environmental harm. For example, members of the family home, other than the person enjoying title to the property, may be excluded from the protection afforded by the property torts, such as private and public nuisance, and trespass to land due to their lack of title. This theme links into a broader debate in that, beyond the family home, there is clearly limited capacity for individuals, or other interested parties, to seek remedies in respect of damage to the wider environment.

Wilde, M. (2003) ‘Locus standi in environmental torts & the potential influence of human rights jurisprudence’, Review of European Community and International Law, 12(3), pp. 284-294 [Online]. Available at (Accessed 10 January 2019).




Capacity of subject of law :

Legal capacity in Law To be a subject of law In order to have ability to acquire rights and take obligations and responsibility, ONE should have this capacity which is called legal capacity. Only subjects of law have a legal capacity, and those who have a legal capacity are the subjects of law. Legal capacity Issue of liability or responsibility, is strictly connected with possession of legal capacity.




The capacity of subject of law of individuals at challenging the rights of the states is a recent right in international law, enabling people’s rights not to remained subservient to the ones of the states’ or even at ‘being prior and standing above’ to the rights of the states or other organization.




Subject of rights (Zivi, 2006).

In Zivi, the subjects of rights is used in a very relevant manner to the                text as it is about the subjects able and responsible for claiming their rights while linking rights with activism.




 Granting Legal Rights to Rivers: Is International Law Ready?

Four rivers around the world now have legal rights. But what are the implications of rights for nature for international environmental law?


August 6, 2018 - by Mara Tignino and Laura E. Turley

Last year, four rivers were granted legal rights: the Whanganui in New Zealand, Rio Atrato in Colombia, and the Ganga and Yamuna rivers in India. These four cases present powerful examples of the increasing relevance of rights-centered environmental protection. Like corporations, which have legal rights in many jurisdictions, these rivers are rights-bearing entities whose rights can be enforced by local communities and individuals in court. But unlike corporations, these rights are not yet recognized in international treaties. Which raises the question: what are the implications of rights for nature for international environmental law?


Granting Rights to a River:  Enhancing a Right-Based Approach

[…] recognizes the importance of protecting water resources, but views them entirely as natural resources belonging to states.

In contrast to international law, some countries have granted rights to the nature, and specifically to rivers, in their national laws. In 2008, Ecuador recognized the constitutional right of Mother Earth and, in 2010, Bolivia adopted the Laws on the Rights of Mother Earth, which gives legal standing to nature and establishes an ombudsman for the protection of its rights. And in May 2017, Colombia’s Constitutional Court recognized the Atrato River as a legal person.

More recently, the Parliament of New Zealand granted the country’s third-longest river, the Whanganui, the legal rights of a person, after a 140-year campaign by the Whanganui Iwi tribe.


India’s Ganges River and one of its main tributaries, the Yamuna River were granted these same rights. The high court in the northern state of Uttarakhand — not the national government, as in New Zealand, Ecuador, and Bolivia—issued the order, citing the case of the Whanganui in establishing that that the Ganges and the Yamuna should be accorded the status of living human entities.

These rivers now have the right to representation in the form of “guardians” or “allies” in legal proceedings against threats to their wellbeing, such as degradation. […]

The Whanganui River is a relatively pristine ecosystem — especially in contrast to the heavily polluted Yamuna and Ganges rivers. Each day, 1.5 billion liters of untreated sewage enters the Ganges River, and many attempts to clean up the river have failed over the years. Will the river’s legal […]

Laura E. Turley




Home > Environment > Environment: The Concept of Legal Personality – From Companies to Natural Entities?

Environment: The Concept of Legal Personality – From Companies to Natural Entities?

Posted in Environment

By Paul Davies and Michael Green

New Zealand’s Parliament has just passed a bill to enable the Whanganui River to be recognised as a legal person. It will now be represented by two nominees: one appointed by the Maori Muir Woodscommunity (or Iwi), and another appointed by the government. […]

Chris Finlayson, New Zealand’s attorney general and minister for treaty negotiations described the move as “unprecedented” but also emphasised that it was equivalent to assigning legal personality to companies.

As a result of this development, the river will have its own legal standing with all corresponding rights, duties and liabilities of a legal person. This is the first instance anywhere of extending legal personality to a natural entity




This change provides a mechanism for the natural object to be proactively protected, rather than reactively addressed through seeking to clean up any degradation in the condition of such natural object.

Given the impact of climate change on the wider environment, we can expect increased pressure for legal systems (globally) to adopt equally innovative steps in order to confer legal personality to significant natural objects.

This post was prepared with the assistance of Ei Nge Htut in the London office of Latham & Watkins.




Should trees have standing? Towards legal rights for natural objects (C. Stone).

January 11, 2014 Anna   Leave a comment



Christopher Stone



Development of rights, development of children’s rights, standing for ‘natural objects’.



This article, from the era when the birth of modern environmentalism and conservationism arguably emanated, is an abstract but serious attempt to propose that forests, oceans and rivers, in fact the entire natural environment, should be afforded legal rights. The piece explains that the granting of new rights involves two aspects; first, legal-operational aspects and second psychic and socio-psychic aspects. The author argues that it would be seemingly ridiculous to state that ‘natural objects’ should have no rights to seek legal redress merely because they cannot speak up for themselves. It is considered normal for corporations, who cannot speak, to employ lawyers to act on their behalf; the same can be said for states, estates, children etc. The mentally incompetent or any person that is incapable of managing their own affairs is provided, by the courts, with someone who can whilst a business entity that has become ‘incompetent’ is, for example, appointed a trustee in bankruptcy; conceivably someone could apply to the courts to be the ‘guardian’ of a natural object that is perceived to be in danger.




Extra corpus :

More secondary corpus related to the concepts linked to the overall translation but not necessarily to the glossary or more loosely connected.




Should Trees Have Standing

Over three decades ago, as a professor at the University of Southern California, Christopher Stone challenged the historic legal premise that nature and trees are treated as objects in the eyes of the law and therefore without rights.  He recognized that for nature to have rights under the law, the fundamental basis of our legal systems would need to be rewritten.

book coverShould Trees Have Standing? became a rallying point for the new environmental movement and food  for a worldwide debate on the basic nature of legal rights. The debate reached the U.S. Supreme Court.


This enduring work continues to serve as the definitive statement as to why trees, oceans, animals, and the environment as a whole should be bestowed with legal rights, so that the voiceless elements in nature are protected for future generations.