Saturday, March 17, 2018

Human trafficking and in particular Child trafficking extracts from academic works

Child trafficking statistics:

Global trafficking statistics

Worldwide, 40.3 million men, women and children were victims of modern slavery on any day in 2016.

Walk Free Foundation, Global Slavery Index, 2018

1 in 4 victims of modern slavery in 2016 were children - a total of 10.1 million child victims.

International Labour Organisation, Walk Free Foundation and International Organisation for Migration, Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: Forced Labour and Forced Marriage, 2017


trafficking statistics IN THE UK.


10,627 potential victims of human trafficking were identified in 2018 - a 52% increase from 2018.


Home Office, National Referral Mechanism Statistics: UK, End of Year Summary, 2019


Nearly half (43%) of all potential victims of trafficking  - 4,550 victims - were children aged 18 and under.


Home Office, National Referral Mechanism Statistics: UK, End of Year Summary, 2019

Effects of child trafficking

Trafficking can have both short and long term effects and the impact can last a lifetime.

Children and young people who've been trafficked might:

  • not understand what's happened to them is abuse - especially if they've been groomed
  • believe they're in a relationship with their abuser and unaware they're being exploited
  • think they played a part in their abuse or have broken the law
  • feel very guilty or ashamed about the abuse they've suffered.


Children are often too scared to speak out. They might be frightened of:

  • what'll happen to themselves, their friends and their family
  • all adults and authorities
  • being prosecuted for a crime
  • being returned to their home country where their situation may be even worse
  • Juju or witchcraft rituals performed during their experiences
  • judgement from their community and families.


C.ET: stigmatization.


They may also feel very guilty or ashamed about the abuse they've suffered.


Talk to children about staying safe



- Gangs

- You can ask your child's school to book a free Speak out Stay safe assembly for primary school children.

It’s estimated that internationally there are between 20 million and 40 million people in modern slavery today. Assessing the full scope of human trafficking is difficult because so cases so often go undetected, something the United Nations refers to as “the hidden figure of crime.”[2]


C.ET: definition disagreement, hidden figures, very difficult to gauge.



Estimates suggest that, internationally, only about .04% survivors of human trafficking cases are identified, meaning that the vast majority of cases of human trafficking go undetected. [3]


Human trafficking earns global profits of roughly $150 billion a year for traffickers, $99 billion of which comes from commercial sexual exploitation.[4]


Globally, an estimated 71% of enslaved people are women and girls, while men and boys account for 29%.[5]


Estimates suggest that about 50,000 people are trafficked into the US each year, most often from Mexico and the Philippines. [6]



In 2018, over half (51.6%) of the criminal human trafficking cases active in the US were sex trafficking cases involving only children.[7]


C.ET: maybe due to be the ones specially dealt with, detected??


Advocates report a growing trend of traffickers using online social media platforms to recruit and advertise targets of human trafficking.[9]


The average age a teen enters the sex trade in the US is 12 to 14 years old. Many victims are runaway girls who were sexually abused as children.[10]


1.      “Modern Slavery Fact Sheet.” Anti-Slavery Internationa. Accessed July 31, 2019. "2019 Trafficking in Persons Report.” United States Department of State. Accessed July 31, 2019. ↩︎

2.      “Forced Labor, Modern Slavery, and Human Trafficking.” International Labor Organization. Accessed July 31, 2019. “Monitoring Target 16.2 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.” United Nations Office on Drug and Crime. Accessed July 31, 2018. ↩︎

3.      “What is Human Trafficking.” Californians Against Sexual Exploitation. Accessed July 31, 2019. ↩︎

4.      “Human Trafficking by the Numbers.” Human Rights First. Accessed July 31, 2019. ↩︎

5.      “Trafficking and Slavery Fact Sheet.” Free the Slaves. Accessed July 31, 2019. ↩︎

6.      “Human Trafficking Within and Into The United States: A Review of the Literature.” Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. Accessed July 31, 2019, ↩︎

7.      "2018 Federal Human Trafficking Report.” The Human Trafficking Institute. Accessed July 31, 2019. ↩︎

8.      "2019 Trafficking in Persons Report.” United States Department of State. Accessed July 31, 2019. ↩︎

9.      “Human Trafficking Within and Into The United States: A Review of the Literature.” Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. Accessed July 31, 2019, ↩︎

10.  “Hotline Statistics.” The National Human Trafficking Hotline. Accessed July 31, 2019. ↩︎










Child human trafficking victims: Challenges for the child welfare system

Rowena Fong *, Jodi Berger Cardoso



- most of the research and resources for trafficking victims have been directed towards

adults rather than children (Fong, 2010).


- Researchers agree that there is a growing number of sexually exploited and trafficked children in the United States (Boxill & Richardson, 2007; Estes & Weiner, 2002; Spangenberg, 2001).


- yet few programs emphasize the unique experiences and special needs of this population (Fong, 2010).


- Many of the domestic victims of sexual exploitation are vulnerable youth on the street or from the foster care system(Fong, 2010).


- approximately 25% (224) of prostitution cases occurred while the child was living at home, 59% (532) of the children participated in local sex rings run by pimps and 16% (145) engaged in national sex prostitution rings (Estes & Weiner, 2002). Estes and Weiner (2002).


- Children who live close to international borders (Fong, 2010).



Many juvenile victims of sexual exploitation are funneled

through the juvenile justice system. They are often arrested on

charges of prostitution or illegal work (Fong, 2010). 

  Previous research consistently

demonstrates the negative impact of child sexual abuse on

child and adult mental health outcomes. In a recent study of such

abuse victims, Spatato, Mullen, Burgess, Wells, & Moss (2004)

found increased incidences of acute anxiety and stress disorders,

affective disorders, conduct disorders and personality disorders.

Other mental health problems may include acute post-traumatic

stress symptoms, low self-esteem, suicidality, poor academic

achievement, substance abuse, disassociation and poor interpersonal

relationship quality (Cohen & Mannarino, 2008; Corcoran &

Pillai, 2008).


- Domestic and international victims of human trafficking are

typically not eligible for services until they have been officially

classified as victims of trafficking. This has often been a hardship

for governmental and non-governmental agencies, who do receive

funding for services until this classification status is achieved. Once

sexually exploited youth have been identified, there are few secure

shelters and treatment programs that can aid in rehabilitation and

reintegration. Moreover, many shelters and treatment programs

do not provide services specific to sexually exploited youth (Fong, 2010).

- Human trafficking victims often

have extra needs for anonymity in group therapy and fear that

family members may be harmed because traffickers use death

threats to enforce compliance (Fong, 2010).

- Many models aim to accomplish at least one of four goals:

symptom reduction, destigmatization, increasing self-esteem and

self-concept and prevention of future abuse (Lev-Wiesel, 2008).


A plethora of barriers in child welfare and other public systems

impede the identification of children who have been sexually

abused. To tackle victim identification, public child welfare

workers and social service providers need to work closely with

juvenile detention facilities, court system, emergency shelters, and

school social workers (Boxill & Richardson, 2005). Until recently,

these entities were completely unaware that U.S. children were

being exploited for commercial sex. While awareness of the issue is

still lacking, successful programs in New York and Atlanta have

helped draw national attention (Fong, 2010).

C.ET: said to be unaware, but in fact unprepared and uncooperative, or not disclosing or tackling.


Few treatment and social service programs are equipped to

address the complex needs of children who may have experienced

torture, rape, drug abuse, trafficking and physical abuse. In

addition, many of these young women and men must grapple (Fong, 2010).

316 R. Fong, J. Berger Cardoso / Evaluation and Program Planning 33 (2010) 311–316


Note used for the ‘Pim Shih’ podcast.