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Saturday, March 17, 2018

Child trafficking

Child trafficking statistics:

 

 

https://www.ecpat.org.uk/child-trafficking-statistics

Global trafficking statistics

Worldwide, 40.3 million men, women and children were victims of modern slavery on any day in 2016.

Walk Free Foundation, Global Slavery Index, 2018

1 in 4 victims of modern slavery in 2016 were children - a total of 10.1 million child victims.

International Labour Organisation, Walk Free Foundation and International Organisation for Migration, Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: Forced Labour and Forced Marriage, 2017

 

trafficking statistics IN THE UK.

 

10,627 potential victims of human trafficking were identified in 2018 - a 52% increase from 2018.

 

Home Office, National Referral Mechanism Statistics: UK, End of Year Summary, 2019

 

Nearly half (43%) of all potential victims of trafficking  - 4,550 victims - were children aged 18 and under.

 

Home Office, National Referral Mechanism Statistics: UK, End of Year Summary, 2019

https://www.ecpat.org.uk/child-trafficking-statistics

 

 

https://www.nspcc.org.uk/what-is-child-abuse/types-of-abuse/child-trafficking/

Effects of child trafficking

Trafficking can have both short and long term effects and the impact can last a lifetime.

Children and young people who've been trafficked might:

  • not understand what's happened to them is abuse - especially if they've been groomed
  • believe they're in a relationship with their abuser and unaware they're being exploited
  • think they played a part in their abuse or have broken the law
  • feel very guilty or ashamed about the abuse they've suffered.

 

Children are often too scared to speak out. They might be frightened of:

  • what'll happen to themselves, their friends and their family
  • all adults and authorities
  • being prosecuted for a crime
  • being returned to their home country where their situation may be even worse
  • Juju or witchcraft rituals performed during their experiences
  • judgement from their community and families.

 

C.ET: stigmatization.

 

They may also feel very guilty or ashamed about the abuse they've suffered.

 

Talk to children about staying safe

 

https://www.nspcc.org.uk/keeping-children-safe/our-services/working-with-schools/

 

- ONLINE GROOMING

- Gangs

- You can ask your child's school to book a free Speak out Stay safe assembly for primary school children.

 

 

https://www.nspcc.org.uk/what-is-child-abuse/types-of-abuse/child-trafficking/

It’s estimated that internationally there are between 20 million and 40 million people in modern slavery today. Assessing the full scope of human trafficking is difficult because so cases so often go undetected, something the United Nations refers to as “the hidden figure of crime.”[2]

 

C.ET: definition disagreement, hidden figures, very difficult to gauge.

 

 

Estimates suggest that, internationally, only about .04% survivors of human trafficking cases are identified, meaning that the vast majority of cases of human trafficking go undetected. [3]

 

Human trafficking earns global profits of roughly $150 billion a year for traffickers, $99 billion of which comes from commercial sexual exploitation.[4]

 

Globally, an estimated 71% of enslaved people are women and girls, while men and boys account for 29%.[5]

 

Estimates suggest that about 50,000 people are trafficked into the US each year, most often from Mexico and the Philippines. [6]

https://www.dosomething.org/us/facts/11-facts-about-human-trafficking

 

 

In 2018, over half (51.6%) of the criminal human trafficking cases active in the US were sex trafficking cases involving only children.[7]

 

C.ET: maybe due to be the ones specially dealt with, detected??

 

Advocates report a growing trend of traffickers using online social media platforms to recruit and advertise targets of human trafficking.[9]

 

The average age a teen enters the sex trade in the US is 12 to 14 years old. Many victims are runaway girls who were sexually abused as children.[10]

https://www.dosomething.org/us/facts/11-facts-about-human-trafficking

 

1.      “Modern Slavery Fact Sheet.” Anti-Slavery Internationa. Accessed July 31, 2019. https://www.antislavery.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Modern-slavery-fact-sheet.pdf. "2019 Trafficking in Persons Report.” United States Department of State. Accessed July 31, 2019. https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/2019-Trafficking-in-Persons-Report.pdf. ↩︎

2.      “Forced Labor, Modern Slavery, and Human Trafficking.” International Labor Organization. Accessed July 31, 2019. http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/forced-labour/lang--en/index.htm. “Monitoring Target 16.2 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.” United Nations Office on Drug and Crime. Accessed July 31, 2018. https://www.unodc.org/documents/research/UNODC-DNR_research_brief.pdf ↩︎

3.      “What is Human Trafficking.” Californians Against Sexual Exploitation. Accessed July 31, 2019. http://www.caseact.org/learn/humantrafficking/. ↩︎

4.      “Human Trafficking by the Numbers.” Human Rights First. Accessed July 31, 2019. https://www.humanrightsfirst.org/resource/human-trafficking-numbers. ↩︎

5.      “Trafficking and Slavery Fact Sheet.” Free the Slaves. Accessed July 31, 2019. https://www.freetheslaves.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Trafficking-ans-Slavery-Fact-Sheet-April-2018.pdf ↩︎

6.      “Human Trafficking Within and Into The United States: A Review of the Literature.” Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. Accessed July 31, 2019, https://aspe.hhs.gov/report/human-trafficking-and-within-united-states-review-literature#Trafficking. ↩︎

7.      "2018 Federal Human Trafficking Report.” The Human Trafficking Institute. Accessed July 31, 2019. ↩︎

8.      "2019 Trafficking in Persons Report.” United States Department of State. Accessed July 31, 2019. https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/2019-Trafficking-in-Persons-Report.pdf. ↩︎

9.      “Human Trafficking Within and Into The United States: A Review of the Literature.” Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. Accessed July 31, 2019, https://aspe.hhs.gov/report/human-trafficking-and-within-united-states-review-literature#Trafficking. ↩︎

10.  “Hotline Statistics.” The National Human Trafficking Hotline. Accessed July 31, 2019. https://humantraffickinghotline.org/states. ↩︎

https://www.dosomething.org/us/facts/11-facts-about-human-trafficking

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Child human trafficking victims: Challenges for the child welfare system

Rowena Fong *, Jodi Berger Cardoso

 

 

- most of the research and resources for trafficking victims have been directed towards

adults rather than children (Fong, 2010).

 

- Researchers agree that there is a growing number of sexually exploited and trafficked children in the United States (Boxill & Richardson, 2007; Estes & Weiner, 2002; Spangenberg, 2001).

 

- yet few programs emphasize the unique experiences and special needs of this population (Fong, 2010).

 

- Many of the domestic victims of sexual exploitation are vulnerable youth on the street or from the foster care system(Fong, 2010).

 

- approximately 25% (224) of prostitution cases occurred while the child was living at home, 59% (532) of the children participated in local sex rings run by pimps and 16% (145) engaged in national sex prostitution rings (Estes & Weiner, 2002). Estes and Weiner (2002).

 

- Children who live close to international borders (Fong, 2010).

 

 

Many juvenile victims of sexual exploitation are funneled

through the juvenile justice system. They are often arrested on

charges of prostitution or illegal work (Fong, 2010). 

  Previous research consistently

demonstrates the negative impact of child sexual abuse on

child and adult mental health outcomes. In a recent study of such

abuse victims, Spatato, Mullen, Burgess, Wells, & Moss (2004)

found increased incidences of acute anxiety and stress disorders,

affective disorders, conduct disorders and personality disorders.

Other mental health problems may include acute post-traumatic

stress symptoms, low self-esteem, suicidality, poor academic

achievement, substance abuse, disassociation and poor interpersonal

relationship quality (Cohen & Mannarino, 2008; Corcoran &

Pillai, 2008).

 

- Domestic and international victims of human trafficking are

typically not eligible for services until they have been officially

classified as victims of trafficking. This has often been a hardship

for governmental and non-governmental agencies, who do receive

funding for services until this classification status is achieved. Once

sexually exploited youth have been identified, there are few secure

shelters and treatment programs that can aid in rehabilitation and

reintegration. Moreover, many shelters and treatment programs

do not provide services specific to sexually exploited youth (Fong, 2010).

- Human trafficking victims often

have extra needs for anonymity in group therapy and fear that

family members may be harmed because traffickers use death

threats to enforce compliance (Fong, 2010).

- Many models aim to accomplish at least one of four goals:

symptom reduction, destigmatization, increasing self-esteem and

self-concept and prevention of future abuse (Lev-Wiesel, 2008).

 

A plethora of barriers in child welfare and other public systems

impede the identification of children who have been sexually

abused. To tackle victim identification, public child welfare

workers and social service providers need to work closely with

juvenile detention facilities, court system, emergency shelters, and

school social workers (Boxill & Richardson, 2005). Until recently,

these entities were completely unaware that U.S. children were

being exploited for commercial sex. While awareness of the issue is

still lacking, successful programs in New York and Atlanta have

helped draw national attention (Fong, 2010).

C.ET: said to be unaware, but in fact unprepared and uncooperative, or not disclosing or tackling.

 

Few treatment and social service programs are equipped to

address the complex needs of children who may have experienced

torture, rape, drug abuse, trafficking and physical abuse. In

addition, many of these young women and men must grapple (Fong, 2010).

316 R. Fong, J. Berger Cardoso / Evaluation and Program Planning 33 (2010) 311–316


 

Note used for the ‘Pim Shih’ podcast.


 

 


Wednesday, February 14, 2018

WHO WOULD LIKE CHINA AND RUSSIA TO BECOME THEIR BIG BROTHE’S?? China just going from undemocratic to dictatorial in on move or two: and WHAT YOU MIGHT NOT HAVE UNDERSTOOD ABOUT CHINA CENSORSHIP, half of the western content have been blocked from viewing, and note, now if you are caught (surfing google or many others, including all videos), it can mean prison.

WHO WOULD LIKE CHINA AND RUSSIA TO BECOME THEIR BIG BROTHE’S
China just going from undemocratic to dictatorial in on move or two.

and WHAT YOU MIGHT NOT HAVE UNDERSTOOD ABOUT CHINA CENSORSHIP, half of  the western content have been blocked from viewing, and note, now if you are caught (surfing google or many others, including all videos), it can mean prison.


WHAT YOU MIGHT NOT HAVE UNDERSTOOD ABOUT CHINA CENSORSHIP, IS THAT IT IS NOT INNER TO THE COUNTRY BUT BAN CHINESE FROM SAYING WHAT THEY THINK BUT NOT ONLY. THE IT GREAT WALL OF CHINA BANS THOUSANDS OF FOREIGN WEBSITES (AS HUGE AS GOOGLE, WIKIPEDIA, TWEETER, THE NEW-YORK TIME AND YOUTUBE, ALL BLOGS, AND ALL VIDEOS- AS IN VIDEO YOU CANNOT FISH FOR PARTICULAR LEXIC AND LINGUISTICS YOU WANT TO SEE DISAPPEAR).

THE NOVELTY IS THAT NOW YOU COULD GO TO PRISON TO TRY TO CIRCUMVENT THE CENSORS IN ORDER TO ACCES WHAT EUROPEANS OR AMERICANS CAN VIEW AND READ.




In fact, I have lived and worked in China, all Google and therefore Youtube are out of reach, and all videos as Chinese cannot cipher foreign videos for censoring them as content cannot be censored via automatic digital censoring websites using certain words (all foreign blogs are banned in China). I am very worried as people could, when I first came there, found free VPN online, enabling them to register their computer IP in another country and therefore circumvent censorship. Six months upon my arrival, you still could use a VPN but for money, the same amount of money you need to have an unlimited internet connexion (huge amount for a working class Chinese citizens). Personally, I decided not to take one, and ended up working hours; wasted as I could not access sites still listed in search engines, even ‘English teaching site’, TFL sites, educational sites, etc…
Even more worrying now the Chinese governments officially said that they can punish the use of VPN (only way to access foreign blogs, youtube, all videos, etc !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!--) with computers ‘use bans on individual charge with browsing forbidden foreign internet material or by imprisoning them.







C.ET: AS A FURTHER NOTE: these past few weeks the news could not dry on how Shi, the Chinese president became the one figure of the party, comparing him to Marx and Mao.
But 2 years ago, Shi became at the same time as president, chief of the army, while treating their neighbors of land grabs- not talking of the Tibet that the English has given to them when they leave the colonial.


If today, Brexit might make a point of being royal, China gets along in clothes imperial.
And now with America, that elected the ones that said ‘America first’ perhaps wanting war or cooperation, go on with how American have been socially neglected, just maybe to appeal for some sort of economic or else conflict, thinking of how WW1 and WW2, permitted it to reach the top through being a creditor not a loaner like nowadays.
Mayo is the vote in Chinese that means null- the opposition dictatorship will have in their midst.




China crackdown: VPN vendor gets prison
Nine months for letting punters bypass Great Firewall
By Richard Chirgwin 5 Sep 2017 at 03:07

After China’s crackdown, now Russia is banning VPNs too


China just made VPNs illegal
The Great Firewall just got more impenetrable.



In Putin’s Russia, the hollowed-out media mirrors the state
The Russian government has spent years consolidating its control of the media. Now it sees reporters as public servants first and journalists second – if at all

C.ET: mirroring how in the west, one could spend one’s life listening to media without knowing anything of what is really happening.



China’s New Emperor

In another country, Chinese President Xi Jinping’s concentration of power might trigger accusations of latter-day totalitarianism.

By Chris Patten
Zhou Enlai, Mao’s dutiful number two, is said to have responded to a question about the lessons of the French Revolution by saying that it was too soon to tell.



Table of high-ranking websites blocked in mainland China[edit]


C.ET: Here wiki is very wrong, it is true for Facebook and google, but BBC is not under censorship


Internet censorship in Russia - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_censorship_in_Russia
1.       
2.       
Internet censorship in the Russian Federation is enforced on the basis of several laws and ..... Instances of censorship[edit]. A number of websites maintain lists of websites currently blocked in Russia, based on different sources of information.
Agencies · ‎History · ‎Monitoring · ‎Internet blacklist

How the Russian Internet Censor Banned Itself - Bloomberg

https://www.bloomberg.com/view/.../how-the-russian-internet-censor-banned-itself
1.       
13 Jun 2017 - Censoring the internet is as difficult as it is futile, and Russian internet users ... Instead, internet providers are required to block the sites on the ...

Russia is trying to copy China's internet censorship.

www.slate.com/articles/.../russia_is_trying_to_copy_china_s_internet_censorship.html
1.       
4 Apr 2017 - I quickly found that Russia and China had very different attitudes toward the web. The Great Firewall of China blocked overseas sites such as ...

Google removed from list of banned sites in Russia that led to its ...

https://www.rt.com/business/393593-google-russia-ban-lifted/
1.       
22 Jun 2017 - Russian regulator Roskomnadzor has removed Google Russia from a list of prohibited information resources in the country.

Russia follows China in VPN clampdown, raising censorship concerns

https://www.cnbc.com/.../russia-follows-china-in-vpn-clampdown-raising-censorship-...
1.       
31 Jul 2017 - Russia follows China in tightening internet restrictions, raising fresh ... Various websitesare banned under Russia's internet restriction and child ...
You visited this page on 03/10/17.

How to Unblock Blocked Apps and Websites from Russia

https://www.hotspotshield.com/.../how-to-unblock-blocked-apps-and-websites-from-r...
1.       
Whether you live in Russia or not, knowing what is happening with your favorite apps, as well as how to unblock those if need arises, gives you more control.

Russia's secret internet blacklist | Media | The Guardian

https://www.theguardian.com › Media › Press freedom
1.       
6 Nov 2012 - The Russian state has created a blacklist of blocked websites and internet addresses - but the list itself is secret. It was drawn up following the ...

Russia censors media by blocking websites and popular blog | World ...

https://www.theguardian.com › World › Russia
1.       
14 Mar 2014 - Media watchdog adds Alexei Navalny blog and opposition news sites to banned list amid ongoing Ukraine crisis.

Russia to block access to cryptocurrency exchanges' websites – report ...

https://www.theregister.co.uk/2017/10/10/russia_to_ban_cryptocurrency_exchanges/
1.       
10 Oct 2017 - Updated Russia has announced a ban on the websites of cryptocurrency exchanges.Russian Central Bank First Deputy Governor Sergei ...

Ukraine blocks access to Russia websites - Financial Times

https://www.ft.com/content/118bd84c-3a39-11e7-821a-6027b8a20f23
16 May 2017 - Ukraine says it warned Facebook of Russia fake news ... did not reveal how they planned to technically block traffic to the Russian sites.

Websites blocked in mainland China


9 incredibly popular websites that are still blocked in China








C.ET:
In china thousands of sites cannot be accessed. However, for years people had been able to download VPN (for free or after more assaults only by paying) that allowed them to access sites with the help of VPN- even if you are in china, your computer can browse as if it was in another country (a country without undemocratic, abusive censorship).
THAT WAS BAD, BUT NOW IF YOU ARE CAUGHT USING A VPN? IT HAS BEEN MADE ILLEGAL.

AMAZINGLY ENOUGH, I heard on the BBC radio how your searches recorded by the party and the state at large will influence how Chinese will have access to jobs, and even to services- as banks, phone and internet companies, etc, are nationalized. What is doubly amazing is that I cannot find for the moment discussions about it on the web. It might be a very recent unlocked news… see you later.


PS: SO CHINESE,                  TO NOTE, the interests that people have in freedom of expression is similar in the west. You may not censor a whole site but people will censor actors, agents there. For a beginning.
PS2: the only reason I am aware of that, is thanks to my having worked there. I listened to the news all the time, I would never have understood the seriousness of the situation through that, guess it proves I am a slow one.
PS3: I don’t know how it works in Russia, but from what I gleaned it has similar hues.